Whistleblower protection is a hot topic in France, as a new act aimed at improving the protection of whistleblowers was adopted by French Senate on February 16, 2022. The new act should come into force in France by mid-2022.
Essentially, the new text is aimed, by modifying the provisions of the « Sapin 2 » law dated December 9, 2016 “on transparency, the fight against corruption and the modernization of economic life” to broaden the scope of beneficiaries of the protective status, to simplify the terms of alerts and improve the protection granted to whistleblowers, in particular employees. In doing so, it transposes into French law the provisions of European Union Directive 2019/1937 of 23 October 2019 on the protection of persons who report violations of Union law, but gets also a bit further than the Directive on several points.
The principle of solicitor-client privilege guarantees to every citizen that there is no interference from public authorities in their defence, whatever they may have done.
This principle is established in article 66-5 of the Law n°71-1130 of 31 December 1971 and applies in all matters, whether it is in the field of counsel or defence. This principle protects the consultations addressed by a lawyer to their client, the correspondences between the lawyer and the client or between two lawyers, interview notes and all the documents in the file. Articles 6 and 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights also protect the solicitor-client privilege.
It is a fundamental principle since it guarantees the right of the person to speak openly to their lawyer and obtain a legal advice without worrying that it would one day be used against them.
Combating late payments in commercial transactions: recent European Court of Justice case-law concerning Directive 2011/7
EU Directive 2011/7 aims at combating late payments in commercial transactions. Member States have transposed its provisions enabling a creditor to obtain interest on late payments and a compensation for recovery costs, by way of a fixed sum of EUR 40 in minimum. All this without the necessity of issuing a reminder to the debtor.
The European Court of Justice (ECJ) rendered four different cases in the last months of 2022, two decisions handed down on 20 October 2022 and two others on 1 December 2022. Different national courts referred to the ECJ for preliminary rulings concerning the interpretation to give to various provisions of the directive. The ECJ brought clarifications regarding the minimum fixed sum of EUR 40 (1), the unfair contractual terms (2), and the temporal scope of Directive 2011/7 (3).
Article L.442-1 of the French Commercial Code says: Any person engaged in production, distribution or service activities who abruptly terminates, even partially, an established commercial relationship in the absence of written notice which takes into account, in particular, the duration of the commercial relationship, with reference to trade practices or interprofessional agreements, shall see their responsibility engaged and be obliged to repair the damages caused.
This Article gives a few indications on how to benefit from it.
Christian Roth est Avocat aux Barreaux de Paris et Bruxelles. Il est fondateur et président d’honneur de l’Union des avocats européens (UAE), président de la Commission franco-allemande du Barreau de Paris, vice-président de l’Institut Français des Experts juridiques Internationaux (IFEJI) et président du Cercle des Juristes Alsaciens et Lorrains.
Christian ROTH est invité en tant qu’orateur sur le sujet « Third Party Funding : How Ready Are We ? » au Dehli Arbitration Weekend qui se tiendra du 16-19 février 2023 au DIAC, le tout premier centre d’arbitrage institutionnel annexé à la Haute Cour de New Dehli.
Le 16 mars 2020, le Président de la République a déclaré la France « en guerre » contre le Covid-19. Quelques jours plus tard, l’ensemble du territoire français a été placé en état d’urgence sanitaire, ce qui entraîne un certain nombre de conséquences au regard du droit du travail.
La reprise d’activité en france, une opération complexe et encadrée pour le repreneur, un outil de rétablissement pour le cédant
Pour le repreneur, investir dans la reprise d’une activité peut s’avérer être un pari gagnant, encore faut-il maîtriser les rouages et la technicité du droit des entreprises en difficulté.